Science of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
The new stage of development of science in the region is connected with the formation of a new state – the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
On September 2, 1990 II Extraordinary Congress of deputies of Pridnestrovie proclaimed the formation of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. It was necessary to establish a scientific-educational institution with a view to train specialists in different branches of the economy for the following development of Pridnestrovie. So on September 21, 1990 Tiraspol State Corporative University (now – Pridnestrovian State University named after Shevchenko T.G.) was established according to the resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
Scientific researches are carried out in laboratories of the university. The Pridnestrovian Center of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, engaged in coordination of researches in the field of natural science and humanities (under the supervision of Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Professor – Beril S.I.); the Scientific-Methodological Center of MSU and PSU making scientific and educational contacts with MSU and other classic universities (under the supervision of Professor Okushko V.R.); the Center of the Southern Department of the Russian Academy of Education (under the supervision of Professor Gukalenko O. V.); the scientific library and Internet clubs were established.
In February, 1992 the drafting-publishing department (under the supervision of Matveichuk E.A.) was organized in Pridnestrovian State Corporative University (PSCU). A lot of scientific literature: educational and methodological supplies, monographs, reference books, conference materials, etc. In July, 1993 the drafting-publishing department issued the scientific journal “Bulletin of the Pridnestrovian University” consisting of three sections: Humanities, Natural Sciences, Exact and Engineering Sciences.
According to the resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic on March 12, 1991 the first scientific and research laboratory of the history of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic under the supervision of the senior lecturer Babilunga N.V. was established. Educational and methodological, public and political publications, including such unique works as “The history of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic” (2 volumes), “Pridnestrovian Phenomenon”, “Commemorative book of defenders of Pridnestrovie”, books devoted to the defense of Bendery and Dubossary, a course of lections on the history of Moldavia. The works are of great scientific importance and they are recognized within and beyond the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
In 1992 a series of scientific and research laboratories (SRL) were established according to the resolution of Academic Council of PSCU. Soon their number doubled. By 2001 there were 34 scientific laboratories with 290 members, including 28 Doctors in Science and 77 Masters in Science.
There are five directions of scientific researches:
- social, humanitarian and economic problems of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (“The history of the making of the Pridnestrovian State”, “The economy of Pridnestrovie”, “New educational technologies”, “Functioning and development of languages in the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic”, “Social factor in the system of national securities”);
- natural scientific basis of development of the Pridnestrovian region (“Medical and biological problems of health protection”, “Mechanisms of stable ecosystem functioning”, “Ecological monitoring and environment protection”);
- information technologies (“New methods of mathematic modeling”, “Technologies of constructing open control systems”, “New information technologies in the field of education”);
- economical technologies of foodstuffs production (“Safe economical technologies of cultivation”, “New low-waste technologies of processing and storage of fruit and vegetable and food-stuffs production”);
- highly efficient power-saving technologies in agriculture (“Physics and technologies of dimensionally limitedsemi-conductors, optical and microelectronic devices and apparatus”, “Electric and chemical technologies”, “Technologies of reduction in power and heat loss”, “Technologies of use of waste of non-ferrous metals”).
The results of scientific researches, experiments and design works are protected on the basis of the patent legislation of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
Some considerable inventions in the field of medicine, mechanization of agricultural processes were put into practice.
Scientists of the scientific-research laboratory “Regional researches” under the supervision of the senior lecturer Chebanova L.A. elaborated the complex scientific inquiry “Atlas of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic” and administrative-political map of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic in Russian and English.
The scientific research laboratory “Archeology” under the supervision of Professor Yarov E.V. has been working according to the program “Chobruchi archeological complex as a standard monument of South-East Europe” since 1998. Chobruchi district is of great scientific importance as it has unique archeological memorials. The results of researches let us preserve the historic heritage of the pridnestrovian people. Over 200 barrows, 4 ancient settlements, 3 burial grounds were found near villages Slobodzeia, Chobruchi, Krasnoye, Korotkoye.
The implementation of the law “On languages in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic” is connected with the settlement of the problem of forecasting the language situation in the polyethnic region of Pridnestrovie and working out recommendations on the improvement of public functions of three official languages – Moldavian, Ukrainian and Russian. The scientific laboratories “Lingua” (Professor Pogorelaya E.A.) and “Fakla” (Professor Senik V.B., senior lecturer Mazuryak S.B.) are engaged in research on this problem.
In September, 1997 the agreement on scientific cooperation concerning the problem “Functioning of Slavic languages in Pridnestrovie” was concluded between the Institute of Slavistics and Balkan studies of the Russian Academy of Science and the scientific laboratory “Lingva” of PSU.
The members of the scientific laboratory of PSU “Economic research” – Professor Yakushenko V.G., Gritsuk G.N. worked out the methodology and system of the formation of investing programs of republican enterprises during the transitional period.
Scientific research on some problems of physics: physics of transistors and dielectrics, physics of excitons, nonlinear integral optics, etc. Some scientific schools under the supervision of Doctors in exact science Professors Beril S.I., Hadzhi P.I., Siniavsky E.P., Senokosov E.A. are functioning at the faculty of physics and mathematics.
Scientists of PSU are working out projects for the republican economy.
The university organizes scientific seminars and international conferences. Students are much interested in science. The number of students’ scientific study groups is ever-increasing.
Thus, the Pridnestrovian University became the center of development of scientific potential of the republic. Despite hard economic conditions, the steady increase in efficiency of scientific activity (about 80% of scientific works of Pridnestrovie) is observed here.
Other scientific institutions are functioning in the republic. According to the resolution of the Government of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (January 15, 1993) “On the establishment of Pridnestrovian Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture” the Pridnestrovian Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture (PSRIA) was formed. It is subordinate to the Ministry of Agriculture and Provisions of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and it includes Experimental-Construction Bureau with the experimental production and Experimental-Production Department. The Institute is aimed to carrying out scientific researches and experiments for development of agriculture, plant-growing, fruit-growing, wine-growing, irrigation, melioration, stock-raising, storage and processing agricultural production; putting these projects into practice; also coordination of scientific researches and experiments in the agricultural and industrial complex of the republic carried out by other institutions, organizations and enterprises of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. Besides, PSRIA trains specialists in agriculture. Scientific works are published here.
The scientific staff of the institute includes 140 scientists (3 Doctors in Science and 30 Masters in Science). The head of the institute is Demidov E.S.
Specialists in selection, immunity and biotechnologies grew 89 sorts of twenty vegetables and 3 sorts of perennials for pasture and hay-mowing between 1990 and 2000. Most of them are used in Russia, the Ukraine, Moldova and other countries.
In 1995 the leading research assistants of the institute Professor Strelnikova T.R., Doctors in agricultural sciences Demidov E.S. and Guseva L.I., Masters in agricultural sciences Yarovoy V.M., Lysenko N.M., Zelenichkin V.G. were awarded the State prize of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic for achievements in science.
The Pridnestrovian Scientific Research Institute cooperates with other scientific institutions in selection of vegetables, melons and gourds (Russia, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, Bulgaria, and Slovakia).
On May 12, 1995 the Government of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic passed the resolution “On the establishment of the scientific production association “Dniester” on seed-growing, production, purchase and sale of seeds of agricultural crops”. It was headed by the Pridnestrovian Scientific Research Institute.
The Public Botanical Gardens were established on the basis of the Dendropark in 1992 with a view to conserve the collection of plants (especially rare ones) and other botanical units of great scientific, economic, cultural and medicinal value; to carry out scientific researches and educational work in the field of botanic and environment protection, decorative gardening, architecture of landscapes; to put scientific achievements into practice; to coordinate and direct scientific researches of other dendrological parks of Pridnestrovie.
The collection of the botanical gardens consists of 1325 plants, including 980 shrubs, 150 flowers, 50 medicinal plants, 25 kinds of spices, also 125 kinds of wild herbs. The botanical gardens cooperates with the Pridnestrovian State University, Bendery Medical College, Rybnitsa forestry, the Committee for nature conservation at the town administration of Tiraspol, many botanical gardens of the Ukraine, the Botanical gardens of Moldova (Kishinev). In 1993 the Public Botanical Gardens of Pridnestrovie joined the Council of Ukrainian botanical gardens.
The Republican scientific research institute of ecology and natural resources was established according to the President Decree (on September 25, 2000) “On reorganization of scientific research institutions of the Ministry of natural resources and ecological control”. The Republican Center of ecological researches, the Republican forestry experimental station and the Republican forestry seed-growing station were united.
The main lines of activity of the Republican scientific research institute of ecology and natural resources are development of the ecology in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and introduction of scientific technologies of environment protection; elaboration of standards of environment protection with a view to improve environmental conditions, recommendations on the rational use of all kinds of natural resources of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic; the monitoring of the environment.
The national park “Yagorlyk” was established in 1988 on the basis of the ichthyologic reserve “Gayansky Bay” with a view to work out the scientific basis of conservation, reproduction and rational use of ground and water ecosystems. Soon the High Consultation Council on science and technology and the State Committee on science and technology were established with a view to direct scientific researches and finance them.
In 1992 the Republican Agency of the intellectual property at the Ministry of Justice of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic was organized. Over 500 safe-conducts for units of the industrial property have been given for 8 years of functioning.
Thus, the science is developing successfully in our new republic.